Warrier's Collage February 23, 2022

Welcome To Warrier's COLLAGE On Wednesday, February 23, 2022 (Midweek Edition) 1) Why is Natararaja Statue here? https://youtu.be/ymau-WTYYwc (Link Courtesy : A P Ramadurai) 2) Last Journey of a Mother Tigress https://youtu.be/996pBtDAz_c (Link Courtesy : Shaji Kurup Ex-NABARD) Good Morning Vihaan queried, why next day's message is reaching on the previous night. Gave him convincing reasons. This will, hopefully, get regularised soon. Nice Day M G Warrier A Responses 1) Jyothilakshmi Anil Kumar Ref : My Story So Far Chapter 3* Your story is getting more interesting Uncle. Sorry for the delay in responding, I was indisposed for last two days. Staying with a bunch of inmates for quite some time must have been a "Big Boss" type of experience for you for sure. I believe, destiny already plans the best and the most suitable life for us. You were meant to be a good banker, than a defence personnel. The 'Bank's gain, but Defences' loss. Destiny's conspiracy. Lot to learn from your personality and experiences. You had a good plan in place to progress further and started working hard towards it. You made very good use of time and resources available at TVM. Great read.. Waiting for the next chapter. Exciting. Your writeups are engrossing. *For those who missed the link : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/readersblog/warriersviews/my-story-so-far-chapter-3-alone-in-the-crowd-41321/ (See B'4'Chapter 4 🙏-Warrier) 2) "As Skye gets dark, Slowly..." C V Subbaraman shared a link : https://youtu.be/Lzbr6Kk6jVs Old age will come to all. Hence hereunder is a very nice read, not only for people with or approaching old age, but for all. Getting old is a reality that we need to embrace and prepare for . Worth a careful read, certainly. (For those readers who are not able to open the above link : https://getjoy.in/old-age/ -Collage) B Service Story : M G Warrier My Story So Far (Continued)* Chapter 4 Survival Techniques In retrospect, I am not able to give acceptable reasons for the decisions I took about my life so far or career path. A reader who feels destiny plays a major role said after reading the previous chapters of "My Story So Far" observed : "Your story is getting more interesting. Staying with a bunch of inmates for quite some time must have been a "Big Boss" type of experience for you, for sure. I believe, destiny already plans the best and the most suitable life for us. You were meant to be a good banker, than a defence personnel. The Bank's gain was Defences' loss. Destiny's conspiracy. Lot to learn from your personality and experiences. You had a good plan in place to progress further and started working hard towards it. You made very good use of time and resources available at Thiruvananthapuram" Looks realistic in retrospect. As I was still a teenager, I didn't get much attention in school and college. It was easy to suppress my curiosity and even revolts against injustice. Once I reached AG's Office, I started getting opportunities for "letting out steam" Before colouring my black and white memories, let me confess that, at various stages in life, I opted to "compromise" my cherished principles, which, till then we considered sacrosanct. Let's take a short diversion before proceeding further, to get a feel of compromises I reluctantly agreed : My 39 months in AG's Office before joining RBI in 1968 was eventful in several ways. Before coming to that, let me share the "compromise" I made to fulfill my second career dream of joining banking industry. I received an offer letter to join RBI during the first week of January 1968. The main requirements included submission of a proper relieving letter from the previous employer (AG's Office) and producing good conduct certificates from two reputed individuals. Conduct certificates I received just by mention of selection to RBI. As regards relief order, though I had applied for RBI employment through AG's Office some hurdles came on my way. I was in the Managing Committee of the AG's Office Employees Association which was notoriously militant those days. AG didn't leave any opportunity to tease or punish activists of the Association. Though they didn't officially refuse to accept my resignation Administration didn't give any indication till even two days before my given reporting date in RBI. My friends advised me to get the resignation accepted using the influence of an officer X who was my well wisher. X helped. The case was held back by Deputy Accountant General (Admin). DAG called me. X advised to be very polite and submissive before the DAG till he agreed to accept the resignation and issue the necessary letter. In the presence of two other officers DAG gave me a long lecture on office discipline and how I should behave once I joined Reserve Bank. I listened with a smile with the innocence of a KG child and gave some stupid answers to some questions he asked about the agitational approach of Association. I got the relieving letter. I didn't improve. But I would have continued in AG's Office, if I behaved without "adaptability" **** ****. ** *See A1 above. Blog link for this piece will be shared when published 🙏-Warrier C Current Affairs Media Response February 21, 2022 Taxing the poor* This refers to the article "Some taxing issues in India's fiscal policy" (February 21). The observation "It is a myth that the poor don't pay taxes as they pay a significant amount through indirect taxes" is very true. Historically, whatever be the nature and form of government, world over, decisions on taxation policy has been the prerogative of the rich and the mighty. By now wealth adequate for few generations of the entire world population to live comfortably for at least two generations has been accumulated and is idling unmapped and unaccounted. High time we had a serious look at profit-making and taxation policies. Mainstreaming unaccounted domestic resources, taxing agricultural income, shifting focus of taxation from income to expenditure and investment/savings are ideas whose time has come. As regards transparency in resources mobilisation and reducing living expenses of the lower income groups, Delhi government has done some renovations successfully in the recent past. M G Warrier Thiruvananthapuram *Not published on February 22, 2022. D Collage Essays : Vathsala Jayaraman I Nostalgic Memories My Amma, was a living Goddess.She studied only upto 3rd std.A motherless child, she was brought by her mother's mother,her mother-in-law too. In those days, 1900 beginning, deliveries took place at home. My grandma would be informed soon on start of labour, She would start even at midnight and attend the delivery at thatched huts or even cow sheds or any place. Later my Amma was trained. I don't remember Amma fondling us. She had absolutely no time even to appreciate when I stood first in the class. As my cousin who was my classmate could score low marks, she hesitated to give compliments in front of aunties. My mother used to take me to backyard and kissed my hands that wrote the exams. My Amma was full of energy. Amidst cooking for 25 persons in a joint family and grinding huge volumes of idli batter in manual stone grinder, she had special aptitude in solving Maths problems. She could solve Algebra problems at the college level. My niece doing 1st year B Sc, would leave the problem to Patti. Amma, with a piece of sandstone (maakkal) would solve it on the floor of our cemented floor of cow shed. Her ability to compose poems on various mythological themes for Kolaatta Jothra festival every November was exemplary. She would be present during births to conduct delivery and equally present during deaths to sing the Oppaari eulogising all the merits of the dead. We have many post- graduates and research scholars, many of them women, in our family. But till date no one could excel my energy brimmed Amma in intellectual activities, rational thinking surpassing logical thinking. In 1950 Amma participated in a Patti manram conducted in our temple during Navarathri. Amma, a slim figure in cotton madisar saree, was adjudged as the best speaker. While all others quoted from Thirukkural, Kamba Ramayanam, Amma could quote even better renderings from Tamil folklore. I have prepared a memoir of about 75 pages narrating every memorable event in her life, as narrated by her and also witnessed by us. During every Navarathri my first worship goes to her, a Shakthi incarnate. After marriage we settled in Triplicane, the oldest part of Chennai, then called Madras and a breeding ground of scholars who could rip even guys like Churchill for their bad English! The colony where we lived had ten houses each separated from the other by a thin, audibly transparent wall! They were situated in a square pattern with an open space in the centre in such a way that each family had an uninterrupted view of every other family. Barring an occasional show of temper particularly during the time when the highly rationed corporation water flowed through the brass tap for a limited time, the level of bonhomie was so high among the families that no privacy was ever considered necessary. We never felt the need for any external entertainment as most of it was usually provided live by the families that lived around us. Rich classical music was provided by ladies in loud and clear voice aimed more at warding off any accidental intruders while they were taking bath in the doorless bathrooms. There were this Mani and Poorani expressing their great love for each other through soul-stirring Antakshari sitting on either side of the wall that separated their families. Those songs used to be the chart-busters of those days. There was endless drama in every family which was distinctly more gripping than any soap that we see on the idiot box these days. I learnt several home truths during those golden days. The first was that a better half was not necessarily the better half. This revelation came to me from observing a particular family in which the lady was a devil in disguise while her husband was a mild-mannered gentleman. In those days, the men were just bread winners. The home-maker was always the woman. If ever a woman dominates, the family moves ahead in every sphere ( including the husband)– You cannot deny it. Unless a man is blessed in life, he will not get a woman with leadership qualities. Manaivi amaivathellam iraivan kodutha varam. As Time flew by and women becoming more and more independent, men started losing their 'terror' image! The knowledge, wisdom and humor of middle class families are well known in Triplicane. It should be noted that those husbands are not to be taken as incapable of mastering over their wives, but out of humanity to oblige and to give them the solace, they behaved like that. These people are real genius in their respective fields. Nearly there were sixty members. kaya muya sounds! All fights and romance came to light. All would assemble even for good and bad. Love, affection, culture and patience - all were learnt and absorbed in Triplicane tenements. unboltable bathrooms, urchins running away with buckets of water kept upside! Yes,I learnt to prepare a reasonably thrifty budget. Rent ---- Rs 30 Groceries ----Rs 30 Milk -----Rs 15 Vegetables------Rs 15 Bus fare and Entertainment ---Rs 20 R .D -------------Rs 10 Emergency Rs 10 Madras taught me in three years so many things that could not be taught by my parents in 20 years. The absentee items were not only TV, PC, A/ C and telephone but privacy and secrecy too. In this cage were born and brought up many Engineers, doctors, Accountants and IAS officers too. After 60 years we are living in another cage called FLATS. Yes, there is lot of privacy. But we are yet to know our neighbours. Madras has enabled us to understand 'change is the only unchangeable thing in the world' Vathsala Jayaraman II Adieu, my good friend*... *No prize for guessing who the friend is! The time had come for parting. It wrenched my heart. It has been an association of close to 50 years. When I was told it was just a question of time, I felt a lump in my throat. I was perhaps in my early childhood when we became as inseparable as the Siamese twins. We really enjoyed the long togetherness of nearly five decades. And now, the experts told me that it would be better if I let her go. I muttered to myself that it was easier said than done. I knew that she was quite sick and I was merely holding on to her in vain. Parting, I tell you, is a very cruel thing. When I went to the medico in desperation, she looked at me sadly.‘Oh my baby’ she would have told me in consolation. She told me that I was making life difficult for both of us.‘As days go on you would be more in pain than her, the doctor warned me. He was as merciless as the hangman who felt delight whenever he tested the strength of his rope. He was a good businessman and he finally made me agree to put my life-long associate to eternal sleep. It was a moment when I felt as if my whole body-weight had been shifted to my heart. As the countdown for the Euthanasia neared, I felt really miserable. I spent all my time reminiscing the jolly time we had together particularly when we dined in expensive hotels. 'Food is not going to taste half as good when she is gone', I lamented to myself in grief. Finally, we reached the fateful day. The tragedy was that she was not aware at all of the fact that I was not the one who would undergo the cruel fate, but she. What probably made her think so was that I was asked to occupy the patient's chair. Poor fellow did not realise that she was facing the last few minutes of her life's long journey. The chair was very uncomfortable. It was tilting at a dangerous angle that made me feel that would fall into a bottomless pit anytime. The doctor was least concerned about it. The more the dangerous angle in which I was sitting, the happier he seemed to be. He then pumped some spray around the seat of my friend and gave an injection at the place occupied by her to make parting as least painful as possible. ‘The time for your friend to leave you is now' the doctor announced and wrenched my decaying tooth with a huge contraption as I shouted at the top of my voice. I would have told him that I did not cry because of the physical pain but the pain of my tooth's parting. What joyful times we had together for long years! All those delicious foods would not have tasted half as good without her grinding, I mean active, support. she used to love the twice a day bath that I gave her. If my tooth could speak, it would have told me, 'This is all life is about, my friend! Stop grieving!’ We are giving farewell to childhood and innocence, School , College and education, youth and beauty, siblings and parents after marriage, job after retirement and so on. Life is made up of so many farewells one after the other. Ultimate farewell will not be felt by us. Though I lost my dearest friend, I used to be very proud of my beautiful row of teeth. Alas! It was my own evil dhrishti! I never expected that many of my dear friends will face the same fate soon. When I was 59, I was involved in a road accident while returning from office. Result, I turned into an awkward creature with sunken cheeks, unsupported lips, collapsed jawline which made the chin and nose appear very close. William Shakespeare refers to old age as seventh age“Sans teeth, sans taste, sans every thing". I used to like babies with adorable expression with a toothless smile with a tiny hand reaching out to me. I had even commented that the toothless smile of Mahatma Gandhi was much more admirable than any of the much hyped branded star smiles.. I was very much concerned over facial ageing and shrinking of jaw bones and I decided to go in for artificial dentures. The young dentist encouraged me saying, "Auntie, you will look fifteen years younger and some young man may even fall for you.” While the upper denture faithfully got fixed up in position , the lower denture gave much trouble. However I was amazed to see my face with beautiful starry smile. But the problem started soon on opening my mouth for a cup of water or food. The lower denture fell off like an active baby jumping out of the cradle. Learning to use dentures is a traumatic experience. The eldest sibling in the family, namely the pinky tongue, was already a proud fellow having settled in a permanent home. He was not inclined to allow two more siblings( the two dentures) to intrude in his freedom. The dentist advised me to practise reciting slokas with complicated Sanskrit verses like Lalitha Sahasranamam, Soundarya Lahari, Shivanada Lahari with complicated mixed Aksharas and pronunciations daily for half an hour or one hour. I could not understand the connection between the shlokas and my denture. Within a week I understood the significance that it is a therapy to control the big brother, namely the tongue. Surprisingly enough, whether God was pleased with my Slokas or persuaded the tongue, I don't know,within a month, the tongue willingly recognized and accommodated the two dentures. Tongue is after all a structure made of muscles. Once it got used to the tricky pronunciation involving the tongue and denture, it realised that the dentures are not aliens and they would permanently occupy his abode, the mouth, as permanent residents. I wonder why human beings with solid brain and mind don't understand this logic of adaptability which a muscular structure is capable of accepting! The naughty lower denture continued to cause troubles. He will find opportune moment to toss me up. Especially during marriage dinners when I am sitting in the middle of a compact row, my little Lilliputian keeping an invisible bit of mustard or nut in the shallow groove, will not allow me to take even a morsel of food, unless I take out the denture, clean it up, and replace it causing a lot of embarrassment to me. As a healthy habit when I try to take water holding the tumbler at a distance, the little darling will be waiting for the opportunity to jump out and fall into the tumbler making a metallic or acrylic sound. He is just like a hyperactive five month old baby who is constantly in motion, easily susceptible to the slightest trigger. His affection towards me is indescribable. Whenever I cough or sneeze, laugh or weep he will immediately come to my rescue falling on my lap cajoling me and will agree to occupy his place only after I resume normalcy. Both the children are hydromaniacs. They want to play in the swimming pool at least for eight hours during night. Even during our vacation trip their specially designed swimming pool ( A fancy plastic cup with water) is the first luggage I pack. Notwithstanding the troubles and nuisance they create I love the little darlings for that sweet smile that they have blessed me with and for the respect I earn in the society. I am not a Mahatma to be content with a‘toothless smile'. I am a normal human being trying to attract others with my sparkling (artificial) smile. I am prepared to bid permanent goodbye to fibrous food, hard chappathis and rice rolls(murukku), but not to my dear pinky white darlings. I overheard them whispering to each other while playing in the swimming pool : "Look brother, these human beings are sadists. They simply enjoy while we are tortured in the pinky prison. Our imprisonment has blessed them with an elegant envious smile. While we suffer in their salivary ditch, they indulge in rejoicing.” The dear darlings are destined to be captives throughout their lives and sacrifice their freedom for the 'sweet smile' of their master/mistress. It is a freedom in prison. Vathsala Jayaraman (This is a board hanging in a Dentist's Lobby in Mumbai : GEETA SAAR तुम्हारा क्या गया जो तुम रोते हो, तुम क्या लाए थे जो तुमने खो दिया, तुमने क्या पैदा किया था जो नष्ट हो गया, तुमने जो लिया यहीं से लिया, जो दिया यहीं पर दिया, जो आज तुम्हारा है, कल किसी और का होगा, क्योंकि परिवर्तन ही संसार का नियम है। (Tumhara kya gaya, jo tum rote ho? Tum kya laye the, jo tumne kho diya? Tumne kya paida kiya tha, jo nash ho gaya? Na tum kuch lekar aaye, jo liya yahi se liya. Jo diya, yahi par diya. Jo liya, bhagavan se liya. Jo diya isi ko diya.) First I thought, it was a joke. Checked and found that the quote is really from Bhagavadgita : 🙏-Warrier) E Spirituality/Faith 1) Dr Charan Singh charan singh (@CharanSingh60) Tweeted: Unity in Diversity - 168 तिन का जनमु सफलु है जो चलहि सतगुर भाइ कुलु उधारहि आपणा धंनु जणेदी माइ हरि हरि नामु धिआईऐ जिस नउ किरपा करे रजाइ Successful are those who follow Guru Their families benefit Blessed is their mother Blessed are those who meditate Guru Amardass, 28, SGGS https://twitter.com/CharanSingh60/status/1495157434587160577?s=20&t=E3t2nXgUVRo0Wu6-P5VTuw charan singh (@CharanSingh60) Tweeted: Unity in Diversity - 169 होइ निमाणी ढहि पवा पूरे सतिगुर पासि निमाणिआ गुरु माणु है गुरु सतिगुरु करे साबासि हउ गुरु सालाहि न रजऊ मै मेले हरि प्रभु पासि Humbly, I fall at feet of Guru Guru, support of helpless, blesses Guru helps to unite with God Ramdass, Srirag, 41, SGGS https://twitter.com/CharanSingh60/status/1495511946166419459?s=20&t=nM2nfdL6zAErjnJ1rLqtEw charan singh (@CharanSingh60) Tweeted: Unity in Diversity - 170 प्राणी तूं आइआ लाहा लैणि लगा कितु कुफकड़े सभ मुकदी चली रैणि O mortal, you came to make gains, profit (from human birth) In what useless pursuits have you got engaged, night (life) is getting over? Guru Arjan, Sri Raag, 43, SGGS https://twitter.com/CharanSingh60/status/1495858276231426049?s=20&t=yO3vyEgtlUKsTruqJ3k9bg F Leisure 1) Everything Online* I had spent an hour in the bank with my Uncle, as he had to transfer some money. I couldn't resist myself & asked... ''Uncle, why don't we activate your internet banking?'' ''Why would I do that?'' He asked... ''Well, then you wont have to spend an hour here for things like transfer. You can even do your shopping online. Everything will be so easy!'' I was so excited about initiating him into the world of Net banking. He asked ''If I do that, I wont have to step out of the house? ''Yes, yes''! I said. I told him how even grocery can be delivered at door now and how amazon delivers everything! His answer left me tongue-tied. He said : ''Since I entered this bank today, I have met four of my friends, I have chatted a while with the staff who know me very well by now. You know I m alone... this is the company that I need. I like to get ready and come to the bank. I have enough time, it is the physical touch that I crave. Two years back I got sick, The store owner from whom I buy fruits, came to see me and sat by my bedside and cried. My wife fell down few days back while on her morning walk. My local grocer saw her and immediately got his car to rush her home as he knows where I live. Would I have that 'human' touch if everything became online? Why would I want everything delivered to me and force me to interact with just my computer? I like to know the person that I'm dealing with and not just the 'seller' . It creates bonds. Relationships. Does online deliver all these as well?" *Forward received from S R Badrinarayanan via Group mail 2) How to become rich?* The Rich Shoeshiner Every morning, the CEO of a major bank in Manhattan went to the corner where a shoeshine man was always there. He used to sit on the chair, read The Wall Street Journal, and the shoeshine man gave his shoes a shiny look. One morning, the shoeshine man asked the CEO: "What do you think of the stock market situation?" The CEO arrogantly asks him: "Why are you so interested in this subject?" The shoeshine man replies: "I have twenty million dollars deposited in your bank and I am thinking about investing part of the money in the stock market." The CEO of the bank asks, "What is your name?" He replies "John Smith H ." The CEO arrives at the bank and asks the manager of the Major Accounts Department: "Do we have a customer named John Smith H.?" The Customer Service Manager for Major Accounts replies, "We certainly do , Sir. He is an extremely esteemed customer. He has twenty million dollars in his account ." The CEO leaves the bank, approaches the shoeshine man, and says: "Mr. Smith, I would like to invite you to be our guest of honor at our board meeting next Monday and tell us your life story. I'm sure we will have a lot to learn from you ." At the board meeting, the CEO introduces him to the board members: "We all know Mr. Smith, who makes our shoes shine like no one else. But Mr Smith is also our valued customer, with twenty million dollars in his account. I invited him to tell us the story of his life. I'm sure we can learn a lot from him. Please, Mr. Smith, tell us your life story." Then, Mr. Smith began to narrate his story: "I came to this country thirty years ago as a young immigrant from Eastern Europe and with an unpronounceable name. I left the ship penniless in my pocket. The first thing I did was to change my name to Smith. I was hungry and exhausted. I started to wander in search for a job, but without success. Suddenly, I found a coin on the sidewalk. I bought some apples. I had two options: eat the apples and satiate my hunger, or start a business. I sold the apples for 50 cents and bought more apples with the money. When I started accumulating dollars, I managed to buy a set of used brushes and shoe polishes and started cleaning shoes. I didn't spend a dime on fun or clothes. I only bought bread and cheese to survive. I saved penny by penny and after a while I bought a new set of brushes and shoe polishes in different shades and colors and increased my clientele. I lived like a monk and saved a penny after penny. After a while, I managed to buy a chair so that my customers could sit comfortably while I cleaned their shoes, which brought me more customers. I didn't spend a dime on the pleasures of life. I kept saving every penny. A few years ago, when the corner shoeshine colleague decided to retire, I had already saved enough money to buy his point, which was a better place than mine. Finally, three months ago, my brother, who was a drug dealer in Chicago, passed away and left me 20 million dollars!" Anyway guys, this is just a campaign to promote reading! Reading stimulates the mind and imagination and helps communication . *Forward received from Dr T V Surendran Mananthavady. If it's a repeat for you and you have read again from beginning to end, it's ok. G Life's Quotes* PRAYER is not a "Spare Wheel" that YOU PULL OUT when IN trouble, but it is a "STEERING WHEEL" that DIRECT the RIGHT PATH THROUGHOUT LIFE. Why is a CAR'S WINDSHIELD so LARGE & the REAR VIEW MIRROR so small? BECAUSE our PAST is NOT as IMPORTANT as OUR FUTURE. So, LOOK AHEAD and MOVE ON. All THINGS in LIFE are TEMPORARY. If they are GOING WELL, ENJOY them, they WILL NOT LAST FOREVER. If they are going wrong, don't WORRY, THEY CAN'T LAST LONG EITHER._ Old FRIENDS are GOLD! NEW friends are DIAMONDS! If you GET a DIAMOND, DON'T FORGET the GOLD! To HOLD a DIAMOND, you ALWAYS NEED a BASE of GOLD! Often when WE LOSE HOPE and THINK this is the END, GOD SMILES from ABOVE and SAYS, "RELAX, SWEETHEART; it's JUST a BEND, NOT THE END!"_ When GOD SOLVES your PROBLEMS, you HAVE FAITH in HIS ABILITIES; when GOD DOESN'T SOLVE YOUR PROBLEMS, HE has FAITH in YOUR ABILITIES. A BLIND PERSON asked GOD: "CAN THERE be ANYTHING WORSE THAN LOSING EYE SIGHT?" HE REPLIED: "YES, LOSING YOUR VISION!" When YOU PRAY for OTHERS, GOD LISTEN to YOU and BLESSES THEM, and SOMETIMES, when you are SAFE and HAPPY, REMEMBER that SOMEONE has PRAYED for YOU. WORRYING does NOT TAKE AWAY TOMORROW'S TROUBLES; but certainly IT TAKES AWAY today's PEACE. FRIENDSHIP is like a BOOK. It takes a FEW SECONDS to BURN, but it TAKES YEARS to WRITE. *Received from Vathsala Jayaraman H Books What is RBI reading?* Book Title: The Future of Money – How the Digital Revolution is Transforming Currencies and Finance; Author: Eswar S Prasad; Publisher: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; Year of Publication: 2021; No. of pages: 467; Price: US $ 35. In ‘The Future of Money : How the Digital Revolution is Transforming Currencies and Finance', Eswar Prasad, the Nandlal P Tolani, Senior Professor of International Trade Policy at Cornell University's Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a former head of the IMF's China Division, detail how accelerating financial change will transform economies for better and worse. Eswar Prasad provides a comprehensive account of the economic, social, and technological issues that will determine how we save, invest, buy and sell in the future. According to him, we are amid a new revolution between State and Private currencies which would transform the world of international payments. At present, cross-border payments hop from bank to bank with each adding fees at every step and repeating costly anti-money laundering checks. The book explains how and why the technology behind bitcoin facilitates cheaper payments and the cause for its volatility. However, the role of a central bank will continue to remain central because the stable coins will be linked to fiat currency, leaving the central banks' role in macro- economic management intact. Central banks' creating their own digital currencies is a matter of “when” not “if”. The book traces the policies towards CBDCs adopted by various Central banks and shows how SDR issued by IMF is just a composite pseudo digital currency. Contributed by Smt. M. Rama Kumari, DGM, DoS, Bengaluru office *RBI Newsletter

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